Here’s where all the COVID-19 vaccine candidates currently stand



Many candidates will fail somewhere along the vaccine development pipeline, which includes three rounds of clinical trials with increasingly large pools of volunteers to assess its safety, efficacy, and ability to prompt a response from the immune system.Many candidates will fail somewhere along the vaccine development pipeline, which includes 3 rounds of clinical trials using thousands of pools of volunteers to assess its safety, efficacy, and ability to prompt a response in the immune system. (Pixabay/)

There are now over 150 different COVID-19 vaccines under growth. Of them, over 50 have reached human trials, and seven are approved for crisis or complete usage in areas of Europe, North America, and Asia. In the United States, 1 vaccine so far (from drug giant Pfizer) was given an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) in the FDA, and another, from Moderna, is likely to follow by the end of 2020.

A number of the other candidates, however, will fail somewhere along the vaccine development pipeline, which comprises three rounds of clinical trials using increasingly large pools of volunteers to assess their safety, efficacy, and ability to prompt a response in the immune system. And for the ones that achieve authorization, there remain significant concerns that we’ll want more time and additional research to answer, such as how long the immunity they offer from COVID-19 continues. Another key question is whether vaccines which protect people from becoming sick will also keep them from taking and unwittingly transmitting the virus (for it’s important for people that have been vaccinated to keep on wearing masks and scratching social distancing). In addition, scaling up production and spreading pathogens to the general public will require months in the United States and longer still in many other areas of the world.

Still, this is an extraordinary accomplishment. Never before has any vaccine was created, tested, and released within a year. The COVID-19 pandemic has brought unusual conditions, however, which have enabled drug manufacturers to move faster than usual. One of these are generous funding, a streamlined bureaucratic procedure, and a disease that has been spread like wildfire in several regions where vaccine trials have been taking place, so that the vaccine candidate’s ability to shield people from the virus is more quickly evident.

“What we now ’ve ever noticed is a real collaborative and collegial way of assisting person-kind and that has come in the funding agencies…then the willingness of scientists across the planet to work together to develop this and to discuss the info, this is a real success story of science,” says Reynold Panettieri, the director of the Rutgers Institute for Translational Medicine and Science. “This pandemic has led to discoveries [which ] could not have occurred in 1 lab or with a single funding agency. ”

Below are some of the most powerful vaccine candidates who have either  been approved for restricted usage or have entered clinical trials.

A busy field

Even the COVID-19 vaccine candidates are a varied lot which were created from a mix of traditional and experimental approaches.

Some, such as people by Pfizer and Moderna, are so-called nucleic acid vaccines which take fragments of genetic information in the virus. In the case of Moderna and Pfizer, this substance is messenger RNA (mRNA), which includes instructions that cells use to construct proteins. When human cells ldquo;see ” the mRNA, which codes to your spike-shaped proteins on the surface of the virus which allow it to invade cells, they start pumping out spike proteins. The spike proteins may ’t even induce illness on their own, however they also do prime the immune system to recognize and strike the book coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, if the vaccinated individual is subjected to it.

This new technology is promising because mRNA vaccines are less difficult to mass produce than most traditional vaccines. They also appear to rouse a number of unique areas of the immune system, Panettieri claims. Another benefit is that, because they contain only a snippet of genetic material rather than a whole virus, they are predicted to be especially safe. However, mRNA is extremely fragile and these vaccines may have to be stored at ultra-cold temperatures to stop it from degrading, which may make them challenging to distribute.

Some other promising COVID-19 vaccines have a benign virus engineered to take the genetic sequence that codes for the spike protein in SAR-CoV-2. The vaccine developed by AstraZeneca is 1 example of this group, which are known as viral vector vaccines. Just like mRNA vaccines, this hereditary information is used by our own cells to construct the spike protein and train the immune system to understand the book coronavirus. 2 recently-approved Ebola vaccines utilize this tactic. Researchers also have expressed some issues the delivery viruses–such as adenoviruses, which lead to common colds in people and other creatures –may be similar to the ones that the body has encounter before.

“Our bodies can combat the shuttle virus and it may ’t then deliver its shipment,” Panettieri says. “That’therefore it could be a little less effective than the mRNA vaccines. ”

Other candidate vaccines, such as people from Novavax and Sanofi, are constructed in protein fragments of virus that is senile. One common immunization that already employs this technique is that the hepatitis B vaccine. Other COVID-19 vaccines include variations of this novel coronavirus that have been ldquo;killed” or diminished so that they obtained ’t even cause illness. There are lots of existing vaccines which use this tactic, such as those with measles, yellow fever, along with seasonal influenza.

Pfizer and BioNTech

Name: BNT162b2

Status: Phase 2/3, crisis usage in Many countries, such as the United States, also approved in a few countries

The COVID-19 vaccine developed by New York-based Pfizer along with the German biotech company BioNTech is the first mRNA vaccine to become available to the public. The vaccine has received emergency authorization in many of countries, such as in the United Kingdom on December 2 and on December 11 from Mexico and the United States. It’s been completely approved in Canada and many other countries.

With more than 300,000 people dead from COVID-19, the United States started its rightful effort on December 14. Healthcare workers and residents of long-term care centers are being prioritized initial, which will likely be followed by key workers, adults over 65 and people with conditions which make them vulnerable to severe COVID-19. The vaccine could eventually be available to adults from the overall populace next spring. It has not yet been prescribed for people in children under 16 or expectant individuals, but the latter group can opt to get vaccinated.

The vaccine is given in 2 shots which take place three months apart and must be kept at -94 degrees Fahrenheit. Pfizer and BioNTech first reported that the vaccine is far over 90 percent effective on November 9. On November 18 the firms declared that a more thorough analysis revealed the vaccine to be 95 percent effective. A report from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration released on December 8 discovered that the vaccine’s protection started kicking in over 10 days of the first dose.  It appears to work equally well across age, race, and gender.

Potential side effects of the vaccine include fever, fatigue, aches, and distress, particularly after the next dose. Of about 22,000 people in the phase 3 trial that received the vaccine, four developed a form of temporary facial paralysis named Bell’s palsy. But this rate isn’t even considerably higher than in the overall populace. Following the vaccine became available in Britain, several people with a history of severe allergic reactions moved into anaphylaxis but have regained; people with serious allergies could be immunized but ought to talk about the vaccine with their physician first.

The United States has procured 100 million doses (sufficient for 50 million people) of Pfizer and BioNTech’s medication, with 25 million expected by the end of the year.

Moderna Therapeutics

Name: mRNA-1273

Status: Phase 3

Modernaa biotechnology company based in Massachusetts, partnered with the National Institutes of Health to create its mRNA vaccine. The vaccine is given in 2 doses, four months apart. It’s a little hardier than Pfizer’s medication and can be refrigerated for a month and suspended for half a year.

On November 16, Moderna announced that preliminary data from its phase 3 trial revealed its vaccine was 94.5 percent effective. Two weeks later, the business reported that a more complete analysis revealed the vaccine was 94.1 percent effective. Of the 196 volunteers that caught COVID-19 from the 30,000-person trial, only 11 had been granted the vaccine candidate.

The fact that Pfizer and Moderna have reported similar results bodes well for the promise of mRNA vaccines. “Two different businesses using similar technology got virtually identical results with regard to efficacy, so that is really intriguing,” Panettieri says.

Moderna’s medication was also 100 percent effective at preventing severe cases of COVID-19; all 30 cases of severe COVID-19 occurred in the placebo group. What’s it prompted the immune response that continued for three or more months also it appears to be equally effective for people of different races. Moderna is now running a phase 2/3 trial of this vaccine in adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18.

Moderna applied for emergency use authorization on November 30. The FDA reported on December 15 its analysis affirmed the vaccine is safe and 94 percent effective complete. On the other hand, the agency found that it was only 86 percent effective in adults over 65.

Several participants in Moderna’s trial did develop Bell’s palsy, three of whom were in the educated group. The FDA concluded that the participants had risk factors for those conditions, also composed that ldquo;currently available information is inadequate to ascertain a causal relationship with the vaccine. ” People who received the vaccine also have reported fevers, fatigue, nausea, or despair –a sign that the vaccine is working as meant to provoke a response in the immune system, experts say.

The FDA’s independent Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee will meet with critique the vaccine on December 17. If it’s granted emergency authorization, immunizations can start on December 21. The United States has bought 200 million doses of Moderna’s medication, with 20 million doses expected by the end of 2020. The vaccine could become widely accessible in spring 2021.

University of Oxford and AstraZeneca

Name: AZD1222

Status: Phase 3

For this particular vector vaccine, investigators picked an adenovirus that normally infects chimpanzees into ferry the SARS-CoV-2 genes into human cells.

At the start of the pandemic, scientists at the University of Oxford had designed an identical vaccine for Middle East respiratory syndrome (which is caused by a different member of the coronavirus family) who had entered clinical trials. Their expertise gave them a head start on developing and testing a COVID-19 vaccine, further aided by British-Swedish drugmaker AstraZeneca.

The team declared early statistics on its phase 3 trials suggesting that the vaccine is safe and roughly 70 percent effective on average in November, also reported that their peer-reviewed findings from the Lancet on December 8. During clinical trials, some participants had been wrongly provided a half-dose of this vaccine due to their first shot (the vaccine is given in 2 doses separated by four months ). Perplexingly, the effectiveness of this vaccine in this category was 90 percent, while being 62 percent from the group that received the planned complete dose. Experts say further study is needed to translate these results. The vaccine may also have averted severe cases of COVID-19 in both classes.

The AZD1222 vaccine could be stored for at least six weeks at a traditional fridge, which might allow it to be relatively simple to distribute. The United States has arranged at least 300 million doses of this vaccine.

In December, AstraZeneca announced plans to collaborate with Russia’s Gamaleya Research Institute to find out whether combining both COVID-19 vaccines can make them more effective.

CanSino Biologics

Name: Ad5-nCoV

Status: Phase 3, restricted use in China

Chinese biopharmaceutical company CanSino Biologics collaborated with the Academy of Military Medical Sciences to create a vaccine which uses a weakened adenovirus that is unable to replicate within the human body to provide SARS-CoV-2 genes.

On June 25 China granted CanSino’s vaccine approval for military usage for a single year. Preliminary statistics from phase 2 trials printed in July indicated the vaccine was both safe and prompted “important immune reactions. ” Phase 3 trials for the vaccine–which can be refrigerated and can be awarded as one dose–started in August.

Sinovac Biotech

Name: CoronaVac

Status: Phase 3, restricted use in China

Chinese firm Sinovac Biotech received emergency acceptance to start immunizing high-risk groups such as healthcare workers this summer. Its own COVID-19 vaccine is created from an inactivated, or ldquo;murdered,” type of SARS-CoV-2 that is discharged and delivered in 2 doses separated by fourteen days. SinoVac has formerly developed inactivated virus vaccines which were approved for swine flu; avian flu; hepatitis A and B; along with hands, foot, and mouth disease. Outcomes from CoronaVac’s phase 1 and 2 trials, which were printed in November, imply, while the vaccine did prompt an immune response, it induced volunteers to generate fewer antibodies than individuals who recovered from COVID-19 failed.


Name: BBIBP-CorV

Status: Phase 3, approved in U.A.E. and Bahrain, limited usage in China

The state-owned Chinese pharmaceutical firm Sinopharm is testing two inactivated virus vaccines such as COVID-19. Both obtained emergency endorsement within the summer in China for high-risk classes such as healthcare workers. One of those vaccines, which is given in two doses, which was created by the Beijing Institute of Biological Products. It received emergency acceptance from the United Arab Emirates in late September, followed by total approval on December 9. Bahrain approved the vaccine on December 13. Both countries reported the vaccine is 86 percent effective, although Sinopharm had not released data from its phase 3 trials to confirm this. According to the UAE’s Ministry of Health and Prevention, the vaccine was also 100 percent effective in preventing severe and moderate cases of COVID-19.

Sinopharm’s second inactivated virus vaccine for COVID-19 was created by the Wuhan Institute of Biological Products. Results from phase 1 and 2 trials for the two vaccines signaled they led to antibody production in volunteers.

Gamaleya Research Institute

Name: Sputnik V

Status: Phase 3, conditional acceptance in Russia

The vaccine from Russia’s Gamaleya Research Institute uses two different breeds of adenoviruses to take the genetic arrangement for the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, also at least 2 doses separated by 2 months. This strategy is meant to avoid the immune system from learning how to recognize the shipping virus and produce cells that attack it before it could deliver its own genetic payload. A freeze-dried version of the vaccine may be saved in standard refrigerators.

The vaccine received restricted approval at Russia in August, before phase 3 trials had even started. In September, released results from small early-stage trials indicated that Sputnik V prompted an immune response. President Vladimir Putin announced the launch of a large-scale vaccination effort in early December. The vaccine’s programmers reported on December 14 it was 91.4 percent effective based on data that would be printed (but hasn’t nonetheless ) in an peer reviewed journal.

In October, Russia announced regulatory consent of a second vaccine before phase 3 trials had started. The protein-based vaccine, known as EpiVacCorona, was created by the state’s Vector Institute.

Johnson & Johnson

Name: Ad26.COV2.S

Status: Phase 3

Johnson & Johnson’s compound employs a comparatively infrequent common-cold adenovirus modified so it may ’t replicate within your body to supply genetic material from the book coronavirus. The New Jersey-based corporation has used this approach to come up with a vaccine for Ebola and vaccine candidates for HIV and Zika. Johnson & Johnson expects results from a phase 3 trial of its COVID-19 vaccine in January, also may seek consent from February when they are promising. The trial was originally supposed to include 60,000 volunteers, but had been shrunk to 40,000 volunteers in December because COVID-19 is spreading so fast from the United States that enough participants would likely contract the book virus to test its effectiveness even with less people total.

If the vaccine is approved, Johnson & Johnson has agreed to supply that the U.S. using 100 million doses. Unlike many of its competitors, the vaccine is given as one dose. However, Johnson & Johnson began a second phase 3 trial from November to investigate whether or not a second dose may produce the vaccine more efficient.


Name: NVX-CoV2373

Status: Phase 3

Novavax, which is based in Maryland, hopes to get results from one of its own phase 3 clinical trials in ancient 2021. Its vaccine candidate is created from SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins grown in moth cells then mixed with nanoparticles along with an adjuvant (a chemical which helps produce a more powerful immune response). Several proteins wind up stuck to every nanoparticle, creating pieces that are similar in dimension to the real virus which can be made to capture the immune system’s focus. The business hasn’t brought any vaccines to advertise yet, however it reported assuring information from a phase 3 trial because of its protein-based influenza vaccine before this year.

Novavax has now been agreed to supply 100 million doses of its COVID-19 vaccine into the United States by ancient 2021 if it is shown to work. Outcomes from early-stage trials indicate that the vaccine is safe and prompted participants to generate more electrons than were seen in people whorsquo;d recovered in COVID-19. Researchers also detected “killer” T-cells, which destroy infected tissues, in participants’ blood, indicating a strong immune response. The vaccine is given in 2 doses and can be refrigerated.

Bharat Biotech

Name: Covaxin

Status: Phase 3

India’s Bharat Biotech began phase 3 trials because of its COVID-19 vaccine candidate in November. The business has applied for emergency use authorization together using all the Drugs Controller General of India. The vaccine, which was created in partnership with the Indian Council of Medical Research – National Institute of Virology, is given in 2 doses. It features an inactivated form of the virus along with an adjuvant. The business has not yet released data from its Covaxin trials, though it has stated that it is aiming for the vaccine to be at 60 percent effective.

Inovio Pharmaceuticals

Name: INO-4800

Status: Phase Two

Inovio, which is based in Pennsylvania, has generated a DNA vaccine which can be stored at room temperature for more than a year. The vaccine is injected directly into the skin using a handheld device which uses electrical pulses to temporarily open small pores in cells so that the genetic material can enter more easily.

The FDA set a partial grip on Inovio’s vaccine testing from September to gather more info about the shipping apparatus. In Novemberthe business was cleared to proceed with phase 2 testing at the United States. Inovio has said it “plans to solve the remaining device questions during the conduct of Phase 2 section and prior to the start of the Phase 3 section of this trial. ” Inovio also started a second phase 2 clinical trial for the vaccine candidate in China in December.


Name: CVnCoV

Status: Phase 2/3

CureVac, a biopharmaceutical company headquartered in Germany, is testing a mRNA vaccine candidate which may be refrigerated for three or more months, which could make it easier to roll than several other mRNA vaccines that have to be held at colder temperatures. CureVac’s CVnCoV vaccine is given in 2 doses of 12 micrograms–a much lesser amount than those located from the Moderna and Pfizer mRNA vaccine candidates, which could also make it a lot much easier to distribute quickly.

On December 14, the business announced that it had started enrolling people in a combined phase 2/3 clinical trial from its vaccine candidate. In previous trials, participants produced similar levels of antibodies to folks whorsquo;d recovered in severe COVID-19. CureVac probably won’t even use for acceptance of its vaccine candidate until the middle of 2021, the Financial Times has reported. The business is collaborating with Tesla, Elon Musk’s electric car company, to make cellular molecule printers which Musk has explained as “mRNA microfactories. ”

Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biologic Pharmacy and the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences

Name: ZF2001

Status: Phase 3

The ZF2001 vaccine comprises some of the SARS-CoV-2 surge protein. The vaccine, which is given in 3 doses, proceeded into a phase 3 trial in December.

The Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences also has made a vaccine from an inactivated form of this novel coronavirus. This candidate also reached phase 3 trials in December, and can be given in 2 doses.

Sanofi and GlaxoSmithKline

Status: Phase 1/2

The French pharmaceutical company Sanofi and Britain’s GlaxoSmithKline have developed a vaccine which includes adjuvants and SARS-CoV-2 proteins produced within insect cells. Sanofi has used this technique in its Flublok vaccine for seasonal influenza.

The United States has secured 100 million doses of this COVID-19 vaccine, which received funding in the government’s Operation Warp Speed initiative. On the other hand, the companies announced disappointing results in their phase 1/2 trial on December 11. In adults between the ages of 18 and 49, the vaccine prompted the immune system to create antibodies from SARS-CoV-2 at similar levels to those found in people who recovered in COVID-19. Nevertheless, the immune response was poorer in elderly adults, suggesting that the vaccine dose was too low. Rather than moving into a phase 3 trial in December, the firms plan to initiate a new phase 2 trial in February using a different formulation of this vaccine. This delay means that the vaccine is unlikely to be accessible before overdue 2021.

GlaxoSmithKline is also collaborating with the Canadian biopharmaceutical company Medicago on a different COVID-19 vaccine candidate. It moved to some phase 2/3 clinical trial on November 12, after Medicago reported it led to antibody manufacturing in all nutritious volunteers in a phase 1 trial. The CoVLP vaccine is given in 2 doses three months apart. It’s invented from adjuvants and proteins produced from the leaves of a plant related to tobacco which have experienced viral genes introduced into them.

Murdoch Children’s Research Institute

Name: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin

Status: Phase 3

The BCG vaccine was made from the early 20th Century to avoid tuberculosis and is awarded to over 100 million children across the world every year. To formulate the BCG vaccine, French scientists cultured a strain of tuberculosis bacteria from cow’s udders for many years until it was feeble enough to cause an immune response without making people ill.

The vaccine has added benefits beyond shielding people from tuberculosis. At the’s FDA-approved to treat lung cancer. It may also prime the immune system to ward off other infections. Researchers in California recently reported the healthcare workers who received the BCG vaccine previously were not as likely to deal with COVID-19. Researchers in Australia have been running a phase 3 clinical trial to research whether the vaccine may protect healthcare workers from COVID-19.


Name: AG0302-COVID19

Status: Phase 2/3

The Japanese biopharmaceutical company AnGes began a phase 2/3 trial because of its COVID-19 vaccine candidate in December. The business has partnered with Osaka University and Takara Bio to produce the DNA-based vaccine, which is given in 2 doses.

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